Our Publications

G. Desoubeaux, A. Pantin, R. Peschke, A. Joachim, and C. Cray. Application of Western blot analysis for the diagnosis of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits: example of a quantitative approach. Parasitology Research, 116:743-750, 2017.

N. Stacy, C.L. Field, L. Staggs, R.A. MacLean, B.A Stacy, J. Keene, D. Cacela, C. Pelton, C. Cray, M. Kelley, S. Holmes, and C.J. Innis. Clinicopathological findings in sea turtles assessed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response. Endangered Species Research, 33:25-37, 2017.

S.E. Knafo, T. Norton, M. Mitchell, D.J. Stevenson, N. Hyslop, R. Poppenga, M. Oliva, T. Chen, C. Cray, S.E. Gibbs, L. Durden, N. Stedman, S. Divers, and E.Dierenfeld. Health assessment of Eastern indigo snakes (Drymarchon couperi) in Georgia. Journal of Zoo & Wildlife Medicine, 47(4):1000-1012, 2016.

M.W. Hyatt, C.L. Field, T.M. Clauss, K.L. Arheart, and C. Cray. Plasma protein electrophoresis and select acute phase proteins in healthy bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo) under managed care. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 47(4):984-992, 2016.

S. Sander, P.H. Joyner, C. Cray, D.S. Rotstein, and C. Aitken-Palmer. Acute phase proteins as a marker of inflammation in a Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalski). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 47(2)654-658, 2016.

C. Cray, E. Perritt, S. McKenny, K. Arheart. Utility of IgM titers with IgG and CRP quantitation in the diagnosis of suspected Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 24:256-260, 2015.

C. Cray, M. Rodriguez, C. Field, A. McDermott, L. Leppert, T. Clauss, and G.D. Bossart. Protein and cholesterol electrophoresis of plasma samples from captive cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 27(6):688-695.

M.C. Allender, R.E. Junge, and C. Cray. Plasma electrophoretic profiles of the eastern massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) and influences of age, sex, year, location, and snake fungal disease. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 46(4):767-773, 2015.

S. Clubb, J. Velez, M.M. Garner, J. Zaias, and C. Cray. Health and reproductive assessment of selected Puerto Rican parrots (Amazona vittata) in captivity. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 90(4):313-325, 2015.

K. Delk, R.F. Wack, A. Burgdorf-Moisuk, P.H. Kass, and C. Cray. Acute phase protein and protein electrophoresis values for captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 46(4):929-933, 2015.

L. Rayhel, C. Aitken-Palmer, P. Joyner, C. Cray, C. Lizarraga, B. Ackerman, and C. Crowe. Hematology and chemistry of the captive white-naped crane (Grus vipio). J Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 46(4):747-754, 2015.

S. Berger Baldotto, C. Cray, A. Turner Giannico, L. Reifur, F. Montiani-Ferreira. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in pet rabbits in Brazil. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 24:435-440, 2015.

J. Hausmann, C. Cray, and B.K. Hartup. Comparison of serum protein electrophoresis among wild and captive whooping cranes (Grus americana). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 29(3):192-199, 2015.

E. F. Christiansen, C. Cray, G. Lewbart, and C. Harms. Plasma protein electrophoresis and acute phase proteins in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) following exploratory celiotomy. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 24:76-83, 2015.

M. Ravich, C. Johnson-Delaney, S. Kelleher, L. Hess, K.L. Arheart, and C. Cray. Quantitation of acute phase proteins and protein electrophoresis fractions in ferrets. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 24(2):201-208, 2015.

C. Cray. Reference intervals in avian and exotic hematology. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, 18:105-116, 2015.

H. Beaufrere, C. Cray, M. Ammersbach, and T. Tully. Plasma cholesterol differences mirror interspecies differences in atherosclerosis prevalence in psittaciforms. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 28(3):225-231, 2014.

G.D. Bossart, T.A. Romano, M.M. Peden-Adams, A. Schaefer, S. McCulloch, J.D. Goldstein, C.D. Rice, P.A. Fair, C. Cray, and J.S. Reif. Clinicoimmunopathologic findings in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 108:71-81, 2014.

M. Dickey, C. Cray, T. Norton, M. Murray, C. Barysauskas, K.L. Arheart, S. Nelson, and M. Rodriguez. Assessment of hemoglobin binding protein in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) undergoing rehabilitation. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 45(3):700-703, 2014.

L.M. Ferguson, T.M. Norton, C. Cray, M. Oliva, and P.G.R. Jodice. Health assessments of brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings from colonies in South Carolina and Georgia U.S.A. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 45(4):802-812, 2014.

D. Fischer, L. Van Waeyenberghe, C. Cray, M. Gross, E. Usleber, F. Pasmans, A. Martel, and M. Lierz. Comparison of diagnostic tools for the detection of aspergillosis in blood samples of experimentally infected falcons. Avian Diseases, 58(4):587-298, 2014.

J.E. Flower, J. Byrd, C. Cray, and M. Allender. Plasma electrophoretic profiles and hemoglobin binding protein reference intervals in the Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) and influences of age, sex, season, and geography. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 45(4):836-842, 2014.

F. Ikpatt, D. Reavill, J. Chatfield, S. Clubb, J. Rosenblatt, G. Fonte, Y. Fan, and C. Cray. Diagnosis and treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine,45(4):935-940, 2014.

R. Isaza, E. Wiedner, S. Hiser, and C. Cray. Reference intervals for acute phase protein and serum protein electrophoresis values in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 26(5):616-621, 2014.

M. Jones, K. Arheart, and C. Cray. Reference intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of commonly measured variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 28(2):118-126, 2014.

L. Krol, M. Allender, C. Cray, R. George. Plasma proteins and selected acute-phase proteins in the whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosm). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 45(4):782-7896, 2014.

A. Lennox, S. Clubb, A. Romagnano, N.H. Altman, and C. Cray. Monoclonal hyperglobulinemia in lymphosarcoma in a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna). Avian Diseases, 58(2):326-329, 2014

M. Ravich, C. Cray, L. Hess, and K.L. Arheart. Lipid panel reference intervals for Amazon parrots (Amazona species). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 28(3):209-215, 2014.

C. Cray, M. Rodriguez, and Y. Fernandez. Acute phase protein levels in rabbits with suspected Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 280-286, 2013.

C. Cray. Biomarkers of inflammation in exotic pets. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 22:245-250, 2013.

C. Cray, E. Hammond, and H. Haefele. Acute phase protein and protein electrophoresis values for captive Grant’s zebra (Equus burchelli). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 44(4):1105-1108, 2013.

C. Cray, M. Rodriguez, M. Dickey, L. Brinson Brewer, and K.L. Arheart. Assessment of serum amyloid A levels in the rehabilitation setting in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 44(4):909-915, 2013.

C. Cray, T. Watson, J. Zaias, N.H. Altman. Effect of fenbendazole on the autoimmune (NZB x NZW)F1 mouse model. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 52(3):286-289, 2013.

C. Cray, K. Arheart, M. Hunt, L. Leppert, K. Roberts, S. McCulloch, J. Goldstein, C. Gonzalez, J. Sweeney, R. Stone, P.A. Fair, and G. Bossart. Acute phase protein quantitation in serum from healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). J Vet Diag Invest, 25(1)107-111, 2013.

C. Cray and Y. Rivas. Serological survey for antibody to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in dogs in the United States. J Parasitol, 99(1):153-154, 2013.

H. Beaufrere, J. Nevarez, N. Wakamatsu, S. Clubb, C. Cray, and T. Tully. Experimental diet-induced atherosclerosis in Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Veterinary Pathology, 50(6):1116-1126, 2013.

T. Passler, M.F. Chamorro, K.P. Riddell, M.A. Edmondson, E. van Santen, C. Cray, and P.H. Walz. Evaluation of methods to improve the diagnosis of systemic inflammation in alpacas. J Vet Int Med, 27(4):970-976, 2013.

J. Stanton, C. Cray, M. Dickey, M. Rodriguez, K. Arheart, P. Ling, and A. Herron. Acute phase protein expression during elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 viremia in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). J Zoo Wildl Med, 44(3):605-612, 2013.

F. Tang, S. Messinger, and C. Cray. Use of the indirect sampling method to produce reference intervals for hematology and chemistry analyses in samples from psittaciforms.J Av Med Surg, 27(3): 194-203, 2013.

G. Bossart, K. Arheart, M. Hunt, L. Leppert, K. Roberts, S. McCulloch, J. Goldstein, C. Gonzalez, J. Sweeney, R. Stone, P.A. Fair, and C. Cray. Protein electrophoresis of serum from healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Aquatic Mammals, 38(4):412-417, 2012.

M. Franca, C. Cray, and H.L. Shivaprasad. Serological testing for aspergillosis in broiler chickens and commercial turkeys. Avian Diseases, 56(1):160-164, 2012.

G.W. Pye, W. Ellis, S. FitzGibbon, B. Opitz, L. Keener, K.L. Arheart, and C. Cray. Serum protein electrophoresis reference intervals for free-ranging and zoo-based koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). J Zoo and Wildl Med, 43(1):183-186, 2012.

C. Cray. Acute phase proteins in animals. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, 105:113-150, 2012.

C. Cray. “Diagnosis of aspergillosis in avian species” in Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Eds. M. Fowler and E. Miller, 7th edition, Elsevier, Inc. pp 336-342, 2011.

C. Cray, E. King, M. Rodriguez, L. Decker, and K.L. Arheart. Differences in protein fractions of avian plasma between three commercial electrophoresis systems. J Av Med Surg, 25(2):102-110, 2011.

C. Cray, A. Wack, and K.L. Arheart. Invalidity of albumin measurement of specimens from clinically ill birds by bromcresol green methodology. J Av Med Surg, 25(1):14-22, 2011.

C. Cray. Infectious disease testing in pet birds. Clin Lab Med, 31(1):71-85, 2011.

C. Dong, J.H. Meng, X. Dai, J.H. Liang, A. Feagins, X.J. Meng, N.M. Belfiore, C. Bradford, J.L. Corn, C. Cray, G.E Glass, M.L. Gordon, R.A. Hesse, D.L. Montgomery, W.L. Nicholson, A.A. Pilny, S. Ramamoorthy, D.D. Shaver, J. Dbrobeniuc, M.A. Purdy, H.A, Fields, S. Kamili, and C.G. Teo. Restricted enzooticity of hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 to 4 in the United States. J Clin Micro, 49(12)4164-72, 2011.

C. Cray. Part II: Clinical interpretation of aspergillosis test results.ExoticDVM, 12(2):29-31, 2010.

C. Cray, D.G. Besselsen, J.L. Hart, D. Yoon, M. Rodriguez, J. Zaias, and N.H. Altman. Application of acute phase protein quantitation and protein electrophoresis in monitoring the acute inflammatory process in experimentally and naturally infected mice. Comp Med, 60(4):263-271, 2010.

D. Carlson-Bremer, T.M. Norton, K.V. Gilardi, E.S. Dierenfeld, B. Winn, F.J. Sanders, C. Cray, M. Oliva, T.C. Chen, S.E. Gibbs, L.M. Mazzaro, M.S. Sepulveda, and C.K. Johnson. Health assessment of American oystercatchers (Haematopuspalliatus palliatus) in Georgia and South Carolina. J Wild Dis, 46(3):772-780, 2010.

C. Cray, J. Zaias, N.H. Altman. Acute phase response in animals: a review. Comp Med, 59(6): 514-526, 2009.

C. Cray, D. Stremme, and K. Arheart. Post-prandial biochemistry changes in penguins (Spheniscus demersus) including hyperuricemia. J Zoo Wild Med, 41(2):325-326, 2010.

C. Cray. New testing options for the diagnosis of avian aspergillosis. ExoticDVM,12(1): 32-34, 2010.

C. Cray, T. Watson, and K. Arheart. Serosurvey and diagnostic application of antibody titers to Aspergillus in avian species. Av Dis, 53:491-494, 2009.

M. Lichtenberger, C. Orcutt, D. DeBehnke, C. Cray, C. Paige, L. Mull, and R. Kirby. Fluid resuscitation after acute blood loss in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), J Vet Emerg Crit Care,19(5):467-472, 2009

J. Zaias, M. Mineau, D. Yoon, C. Cray, and N.H. Altman. Baseline reference values for serum protein electrophoresis in common laboratory rodent strains. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci, 48(4)387-390, 2009.

C. Cray. New testing option for the diagnosis of Encephalitzoon cuniculi in rabbits. ExoticDVM, 11(2):27-28, 2009.

C. Cray, G. Arcia, S. Kelleher, R. Schneider, and K. Arheart. Application of ELISA and protein electrophoresis in the diagnosis of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits. Am J Vet Res, 70(4):478-482, 2009.

C. Cray, D. Reavill, A. Romagnano, F. Van Sant, D. Champagne, R. Stevenson, V. Rolfe, C. Griffin, and S. Clubb. Galactomannan assay and protein electrophoresis findings in psittacine birds with aspergillosis. J Av Med Surg, 23(2):125-135, 2009.

C. Cray, M. Rodriguez, J. Zaias, and N.H. Altman. Effects of storage temperature and time on clinical biochemical parameters from rat serum. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci, 48(2):202-204, 2009.

C. Cray, T. Watson, M. Rodriguez, K. Arheart. Application of galactomannan analysis and protein electrophoresis in the diagnosis of aspergillosis in avian species.J Zoo Wild Med, 40(1):64-70, 2009.

S.L. Deem, T.M. Norton, M. Mitchell, A. Segars, A.R. Alleman, C. Cray, R.H. Poppenga, M. Dodd, and W.B. Karesh. Comparison of blood values in foraging, nesting, and stranded loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) along the coast of Georgia, USA. J Wild Dis, 45(1):41-56, 2009.

C. Cray, D. Gautier, D.J. Harris, and K.L. Arheart. Changes in clinical enzyme activity and bile acids levels with altered liver function and disease in psittacine species. J Av Med Surg, 22(1):17-24, 2008.

C. Cray, M. Rodriguez, and K. Arheart. Use of refractometry for determination of psittacine plasma protein concentration. Vet Clin Path, 37(4):438-442, 2008.

C. Cray and D. Villar. Cross reactivity of anti-chicken IgY antibody with immunoglobulins of exotic animal species. Vet Clin Path, 37(3):327-331, 2008.

C. Cray, D. Villar, J. Zaias, N. Altman. Effects of fenbendazole on routine immune response parameters of BALB/c mice. J Am Assos Lab Anim Sci, 47(6):1-5, 2008.

K. Chaffin, T.M. Norton, K. Gilardi, R. Poppenga, J. Jensen, P. Moler, C. Cray, E. Dierenfeld, T. Chen, M. Oliva, F. Origgi, S. Gibbs, L. Mazzaro, and J. Mazet. Health assessment of free-ranging alligator snapping turtles (Macrochelys temminckii) in Georgia and Florida. J Wild Dis, 44(3):670-86, 2008.

S. Deem, E. Ladwig, C. Cray, W.B. Karesh, G. Amato. Health assessment of the ex situ population of Saint Vincent parrots (Amazona guildingii) in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. J Av Med Surg, 22(2):114-122, 2008.

D. Villar, M. Kramer, L. Howard, E. Hammond, C. Cray, and K. Latimer. Clinical presentation and pathology of sarcocystosis in psittaciform birds: 11 cases. Av Dis, 52:187-194, 2008.

J. Zaias, T.J. Queeney, J.B. Kelley, E.S. Zakharova, and S. Izenwasser. Social and physical environment enrichment differentially affect growth and activity of preadolescent and adolescent male rats. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci, 47:30-34, 2008.

C. Cray, M. Rodriguez, and J. Zaias. Protein electrophoresis of psittacine plasma. Vet Clin Path, 36(1):67-72, 2007.

S.L. Clubb, C. Cray, K. Arheart, and M. Goodman. Comparison of selected diagnostic parameters in African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus) with normal plumage and those exhibiting feather damaging behavior.J Av Med Surg, 21(4):259-264, 2007.

K.J. Hopper and C. Cray. Evaluation of a portable clinical analyzer in cynomologus macaques (Macaca fasicularis). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci, 46(3):43-47, 2007.

S. Newman, V.M. Padula, C. Cray, and L.D. Kramer. Health assessment of black-crowned night-herons of the New York harbor estuary. J Comp Biochem and Physiol Part B, 148:363-374, 2007.

D. Villar, C. Cray, J. Zaias, N. Altman. Biological effects of fenbendazole in rats and mice: a review. JAALAS, 46(6):8-15, 2007.

S.L. Deem, G.P. Sounguet, R. Alleman, C. Cray, T.M. Norton, E.S. Dierenfeld, R.H. Poppenga, and W.B. Karesh. Blood values in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) on the coast of the Republic of Gabon. J Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 37:464-471, 2006.

J. Zaias, T. Norton, A. Fickel, J. Spratt, N.H. Altman, and C. Cray. Biochemical and hematologic values for 18 clinically healthy radiated tortoises (Geochelone radiata) on St. Catherines Island, Georgia, Vet Clin Path, 35(3):321-325, 2006.

C.Cray, J. Roskos, K. Zielezienski-Roberts. Detection of cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, in the plasma of birds exposed to second hand smoke, J Av Med Surg, 19(4):277-279, 2005.

C. Cray, K. Zieleienski-Roberts, M. Bonda, R. Stevenson, R. Ness, S. Clubb, and A. Marsh. Antemortem diagnosis of sarcocytosis in psittacine birds, J Av Med Surg, 19(3):208-215, 2005.

C. Cray and M. Bonda. Application of IFA serology to the diagnosis of chlamydophilosis in a pet store. AAV Clinical Forum, pp. 7-9, July-August, 2005.

C. Cray. Letter to the Editor – questions conclusions in electrophoresis study. AJVR, 66(6):936, 2005.

C. Cray and J. Zaias. “Laboratory procedures” in Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotics Animal Practice, Eds. A. Rupley and M. Schulte, Elsevier, Inc., 7(2):487-518, 2004.

C. Cray and A. Andreopoulos. Comparison of two methods to determine plasma bile acids concentrations in healthy birds. J Av Med Surg, 17(1):11-15, 2003.

C Cray. Ways to improve outside laboratory results.ExoticDVM. 4.6:22, 2003.

C. Cray, E. Greiner, K. Zielezienski. Serological diagnosis of Sarcocystosis. AAV Newsletter & Clinical Forum, pp 3-5, March-May, 2002.

J. Zaias and C. Cray. Protein electrophoresis: a tool for the reptilian and amphibian practitioner. J Herp Med and Surg, 12(1): 30-32, 2002.

C. Cray, R. Varella, G.D. Bossart, and P. Lutz. Altered in vitro immune responses in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomatosis. J Zoo Wildlife Med, 32(4):436-440, 2001.

C. Cray, G. Bossart. Biochemical tests for clinical use on avian samples. AAV Newsletter & Clinical Forum, pp. 4-5, Sept-Nov, 2001.

S. Kossoff, R. Bladow, and C. Cray. Standardization of avian diagnostics in hematology and chemistry. AAV Newsletter & Clinical Forum, pp. 6-7, Sept-Nov, 2001.

P. Lutz, C. Cray, and P.L. Sposato. Studies of the association between Immunosuppression and fibropapillomatosis within three habitats of Chelonia mydas. Southwest Fisheries Science Center Honolulu Laboratory Administrative Report H-01-01C, January, 2001.

R.R. Mitchell, S.D. Fitzgerald, R.J. Aulerich, R.J. Balander, D.C. Powell, R.J. Tempelman, C. Cray, W. Stevens, and S.J. Bursain. Chronic dosing study to assess the health and reproductive effects of tungsten-iron and tungsten-polymer shot on game-farm mallards. 2. Hematological effects and concentrations of metal residues in selected tissues of adult mallards. J Wild Dis, 37:459-467, 2001.

T.M. Work, R.A. Rameyer, G.H. Balazs, C. Cray, and S.P. Chang. Immunology of fibropapillomatosis in free ranging green turtles from Hawaii. J Wild Dis, 37:574-581, 2001.

J. Zaias, R.W. Kornegay, N.H. Altman, and A.J. Herron. Unusual immunophenotype of a soft tissue sarcoma in a European polecat (Mustela putorius). Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci, 40:43-44, 2001.

C. Cray. “Avian blood normals” in Handbook of Avian Medicine, Eds. G.H. Olsen and S. Orosz, Mosby Year Book, Inc., pp 590-595, 2000.

C. Cray. “Diagnostic use of protein electrophoresis in birds” in Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XIII, eds. Bonagura and Kirk, WB Saunders and Co., pp.1107-1109,2000.

L. Tatum, J. Zaias, B.K. Mealey, C. Cray, and G.D. Bossart. Protein electrophoresis as a diagnostic tool in raptor medicine.J Zoo Wildlife Med 31:497-502, 2000.

T.M. Work, R.A. Rameyer, G.H. Balazs, C. Cray, and S.P. Chang. Immune status of free-ranging Green turtles from Hawaii with fibropapillomatosis. Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Honolulu Laboratory Administrative Report H-00-11C, December, 2000.

J. Zaias, W.P. Fox, C. Cray, and N.H. Altman. Comparative clinical pathology of the brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis): hematology, protein electrophoresis, and blood chemistry. A J Vet Res, 61:771-774, 2000.

C. Cray, et al. Roundtable on chlamydiosis from the 1998 AAV Annual Conference. J Av Med Surg. 13:45-49, 1999.

C. Cray and L. Tatum. Application of protein electrophoresis in avian diagnostic testing. J Av Med Surg, 12:4-10, 1998.

M.E. Kelly, S.D. Fitzgerald, R.J. Aulerich, R.J. Balander, D.C. Powell, R.L. Stickle, W. Stevens, C. Cray, R.J. Tempelman, and S. J. Bursian. The effect of tungsten-iron and tungsten-polymer Shot on game-farm mallards. J Wildlife Dis 34:673-687, 1998.